I am 16 1/2 years old and I heard that there is a law that requires driver training before I can get my driver's license. What does the law require?

If you apply for a driver's license and are between the ages of 16 1/2 and 18 you must have possessed a learner's permit for at least six months and will only be issued a "Junior Operator's License" (JOL), upon passing a road test, and only if: You have successfully completed a driver education and training program approved by the Registrar which includes 30 hours of classroom instruction, six [soon to be expanded to eight] hours of in-car behind-the-wheel training and six (soon to be reduced to four) hours in-car as an observer of another student driver;  You have completed at least an additional 12 hours of supervised behind-the-wheel driving as shown by a certified statement provided by your parent or guardian; You have had a learner's permit for at least six months; and You have had a "clean driving record" for a minimum of six consecutive months immediately preceding the date you took your road test. The most significant effects of the law's requirements and restrictions are on the operation of a motor vehicle by a person in possession of a "Junior Operator's License." A basic purpose of the law is to provide you with a supervised opportunity to develop good driving skills, while being free of possible distractions caused by having friends your own age present while you are behind the wheel. Under the law, if you are a junior operator (between the ages of 16 1/2 and 18): You may not operate a motor vehicle, within the first six months after receiving a "Junior Operator's License" while any passenger under the age of 18 is in the vehicle (other than yourself or an immediate family member), unless you are accompanied by a person who is at least 21 years old, has at least one year of driving experience, holds a valid driver's license from Massachusetts or another state and is occupying a seat beside you. A junior operator who violates the passenger restriction shall be subject to a license suspension of up to 90 days. The six month passenger restriction period will stop running when the suspension begins and the remainder of the restriction period will start running again when the suspension is completed. As the holder of a "Junior Operator's License" (or Learner's Permit), you may not operate a motor vehicle during the hours of midnight. (midnight) to 5 am unless accompanied by your parent or your legal guardian. You may not operate a motor vehicle requiring a commercial driver's license; Your "Junior Operator's License" will be suspended for a substantial period of time if you are under 18 years of age at the time certain driving offenses involving alcohol or drugs are committed. You will face a license suspension for a 2nd or subsequent offense for speeding or drag racing violations.

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1. I am 16 1/2 years old and I heard that there is a law that requires driver training before I can get my driver's license. What does the law require?
2. I am almost 16. Can I obtain my "Junior Operator's License" when I turn 16?
3. I heard that a new driver with a JOL is not subject to the passenger restriction during the times when he is driving his friends to and from high school in a car pool. Is this true?
4. The back of my JOL says that "passenger restriction may apply if under 18." How will a police officer who stops me know if I am subject to the restriction?
5. What is the penalty if I get caught without my parent in the car?
6. Will I definitely be cited for violating the restriction if I am seen driving at 12:15 am?
7. I work all day and I will probably not have the time to supervise the additional 12 hours of required driving experience. Can my brother do it?